One form of group dynamics is team building. Carron, Hausenblas, & Eys (as cited in Gill & Williams, 2008, p. 261) defined team building as "team enhancement for both task and social purposes." This definition acknowledges the dual nature of team building: not just improved task performance, but also improved social connectedness. And as Carron, Colman, Wheeler, & Stevens (2002) discovered, both task and social cohesion are positively associated with performance. But how can team building help with individual success? A physical education class for seventh grade boys and girls with varying levels of interest and skill provides an excellent example. Students with less skill may feel intimidated by their more skilled peers. Smith and Smoll (1997) found that team building was an effective way of reducing performance anxiety as well as improving self-esteem. Therefore team building is a way in which students can be encouraged to participate and improve their skills.
Based on Yukelson’s (1997) advice, there are several strategies that can be used in team building. Having the students create a special name for their class and wear a colored wristband unique to their class can help to create a team identity. Assigning a more skilled student to work with a less skilled student and creating an environment where positive feedback is expected from and for all students can help foster peer helping and social support. Setting group goals as well as individual goals with the input of students on both topics can create a unity of purpose. And to maintain open and honest communication, students should be encouraged to share their concerns, ideas, and accomplishments with the group during a group share at the end of each class.
As touched on earlier, social support is an important component of group dynamics. Shumaker and Brownell (as cited in Gill & Williams, 2008, p. 251) define social support as "an exchange of resources between at least two individuals perceived by the provider or the recipient to be intended to enhance the well-being of the recipient." Social support can be seen, then, as a positive dynamic between two or more people. To examine how social support might impact individual performance, let’s look at an exercise program for older adults in good health at a senior center. One of the main reasons that older adults attend senior centers is for the social support (Krout, 1983). This social support can have a positive effect on the older adults’ well-being, but it can also help improve their physical activity performance. Duncan and McAuley (1993) found that social support improves self-efficacy which is a crucial part of performance.
Rosenfeld and Richman (as cited in Gill & Williams, 2008, p. 252) created a model of social support that includes three broad types of social support: tangible, informational, and emotional. All three types can be incorporated into the senior center’s exercise program. Tangible support can be provided as assistance with utilizing exercise equipment and with performing other physical activities. Informational support can be provided with positive feedback and advice from the instructor as well as fellow participants. Emotional support can be provided as part of a consultation with the instructor when setting and evaluating personalized goals for the individual participants as well as during group instruction when instructors and participants can provide encouragement.
Improving group dynamics through team building and social support can have a positive impact on individual success as well as group success. Team building can encourage participation by improving self-esteem and reducing performance anxiety. Social support can improve performance by increasing self-efficacy. Groups that take into account the effects of group dynamics on individuals can increase both performance and effectiveness.
ReferencesCarron, A., Colman, M., Wheeler, J., & Stevens, D. (2002). Cohesion and performance in
sport: A meta analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24(2), 168-188.
Gill, D. L., & Williams, L. (2008). Psychological dynamics of sport and exercise (3rd
Ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Krout, J. (1983). Correlates of senior center utilization. Research on Aging, 5(3), 339-352.
Smith, R. E. & Smoll, F. L. (1997). Coach-mediated team building in youth sports. Journal of
Applied Sport Psychology, 9(1), 114-132. doi:10.1080/10413209708415387
Yukelson, D. (1997). Principles of effective team building interventions in sport: A direct
services approach at Penn State University. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology,
9(1), 73-96. doi:10.1080/10413209708415385